Thirty (30) Typologies

The KKO knowledge graph has a relatively thin upper layer, informed by the trichotomous logic and categories of Charles Sanders Peirce, that sits astride (mostly) typologies of entity classes organized according to shared attributes.

Most of the 30 or so core typologies in KBpedia do not overlap with one another, what is known as disjoint. Disjointness enables powerful reasoning and subset selection (filtering) to be performed on the KKO graph. There are upper typologies useful for further organizing the core ontologies, plus providing homes for shared concepts. Living Things, for example, can capture concepts shared by all plants and animals, by all life, which then enables better segregation of those life forms. These natural segregations are applied across the KKO structure.

Here are the 30 or so core typologies organized in the KKO graph, with some upper typologies that cluster them:

Constituents Natural Phenomena This typology includes natural phenomena and natural processes such as weather, weathering, erosion, fires, lightning, earthquakes, tectonics, etc. Clouds and weather processes are specifically included. Also includes climate cycles, general natural events (such as hurricanes) that are not specifically named. Biochemical processes and pathways are specifically excluded, occurring under its own typology.

Area or Region The AreaRegion typology includes all nameable or definable areas or regions that may be found within "space". Though the distinction is not sharp, this typology is meant to be distinct from specific points of interest (POIs) that may be mapped (often displayed as a thumbtack). Areas or regions are best displayed on a map as a polygon (area) or path (polyline).

Location or Place The LocationPlace typology is for bounded and defined points in "space", which can be positiioned via some form of coordinate system and can often be shown as points of interest (POIs) on a map. This typology is distinguished by areas or locations, which are often best displayed as polygons or polylines on a map.

Shapes The Shapes typology captures all 1D, 2D and 3D shapes, regular or irregular. Most shapes are geometrically describable things. Shapes has only a minor disjointedness role, with more than half of KKO reference concepts having some aspect of a Shapes specification.

Forms This typology category includes all aspects of the shapes that objects take in space; Forms is thus closely related to Shapes. The Forms typology is also the collection of natural cartographic features that occur on the surface of the Earth or other planetary bodies, as well as the form shapes that naturally occurring matter may assume. Positive examples include Mountain, Ocean, and Mesa. Artificial features such as canals are excluded. Most instances of these natural features have a fixed location in space.
Time-related Activities These are ongoing activities that result (mostly) from human effort, often conducted by organizations to assist other organizations or individuals (in which case they are known as services, such as medicine, law, printing, consulting or teaching) or individual or group efforts for leisure, fun, sports, games or personal interests (activities). Generic, broad grouping of actions that apply to generic objects are also included in this typology.

Events These are nameable occasions, games, sports events, conferences, natural phenomena, natural disasters, wars, incidents, anniversaries, holidays, or notable moments or periods in time. Events have a finite duration, with a beginning and end. Individual events (such as wars, disasters, newsworthy occasions) may also have their own names.

Times This typology is for specific time or date or period (such as eras, or days, weeks, months type intervals) references in various formats.

Situations Situations are the contexts in which activities and events occur; situations are temporal in nature in that they are a confluence of many factors, some of which are temporal.
Natural Matter Atoms and Elements The Atoms and Elements typology contains all known chemical elements and the constituents of atoms.

Natural Substances The Natural Substances typology are minerals, compounds, chemicals, or physical objects that are not living matter, not the outcome of purposeful human effort, but are found naturally occurring. Other natural objects (such as rock, fossil, etc.) are also found under this typology. Chemicals can be Natural Substances, but only if they are naturally occurring, such as limestone or salt.

Chemistry This typology covers chemical bonds, chemical composition groupings, and the like. It is formed by what is not a natural substance or living thing (organic) substance. Organic Chemistry and Biological Processes are, by definition, separate typologies. This Chemistry typology thus includes inorganic chemistry, physical chemistry, analytical chemistry, materials chemistry, nuclear chemistry, and theoretical chemistry.
Organic Matter Organic Chemistry The Organic Chemistry typology is for all chemistry involving carbon, including the biochemistry of living organisms and the materials chemistry (including polymers) of organic compounds such as fossil fuels.

Biochemical Processes The Biochemical Processes typology is for all sequences of reactions and chemical pathways associated with living things.
Living Things Prokaryotes The Prokaryotes include all prokaryotic organisms, including the Monera, Archaebacteria, Bacteria, and Blue-green algas. Also included in this typology are viruses and prions.

Protists & Fungus This is the remaining cluster of eukaryotic organisms, specifically including the fungus and the protista (protozoans and slime molds).

Plants This typology includes all plant types and flora, including flowering plants, algae, non-flowering plants, gymnosperms, cycads, and plant parts and body types. Note that all Plant parts are also included.

Animals This large typology includes all animal types, including specific animal types and vertebrates, invertebrates, insects, crustaceans, fish, reptiles, amphibia, birds, mammals, and animal body parts. Animal parts are specifically included. Also, groupings of such animals are included. Humans, as an animal, are included (versus as an individual Person). Diseases are specifically excluded. Animals have many of the similar overlaps to Plants. However, in addition, there are more terms for animal groups, animal parts, animal secretions, etc. Also Animals can include some human traits (posture, dead animal, etc.)

Diseases Diseases are atypical or unusual or unhealthy conditions for (mostly human) living things, generally known as conditions, disorders, infections, diseases or syndromes. Diseases only affect living things and sometimes are caused by living things. This typology also includes impairments, disease vectors, wounds and injuries, and poisoning.
Agents Persons The appropriate typology for all named, individual human beings. This typology also includes the assignment of formal, honorific or cultural titles given to specific human individuals. It further includes names given to humans who conduct specific jobs or activities (the latter case is known as an avocation). Examples include steelworker, waitress, lawyer, plumber, artisan. Ethnic groups are specifically included. Persons as living animals are included under the Animals typology.

Organizations Organization is a broad typology and includes formal collections of humans, sometimes by legal means, charter, agreement or some mode of formal understanding. Examples these organizations include geopolitical entities such as nations, municipalities or countries; or companies, institutes, governments, universities, militaries, political parties, game groups, international organizations, trade associations, etc. All institutions, for example, are organizations. Also included are informal collections of humans. Informal or less defined groupings of humans may result from ethnicity or tribes or nationality or from shared interests (such as social networks or mailing lists) or expertise ("communities of practice"). This dimension also includes the notion of identifiable human groups with set members at any given point in time. Examples include music groups, cast members of a play, directors on a corporate Board, TV show members, gangs, teams, mobs, juries, generations, minorities, etc.

Geopolitical Named places that have some informal or formal political (authorized) component. Important subcollections include Country, IndependentCountry, State_Geopolitical, City, and Province.
Artifacts Products The Products typology includes any instance offered for sale or barter or performed as a commercial service. A Product is often a physical object made by humans that is not a conceptual work or a facility (which have their own typologies), such as vehicles, cars, trains, aircraft, spaceships, ships, foods, beverages, clothes, drugs, weapons.

Food or Drink This typology is any edible substance grown, made or harvested by humans. The category also specifically includes the concept of cuisines.

Drugs This typology is a drug, medication or addictive substance, or a toxin or a poison.

Facilities Facilities are physical places or buildings constructed by humans, such as schools, public institutions, markets, museums, amusement parks, worship places, stations, airports, ports, carstops, lines, railroads, roads, waterways, tunnels, bridges, parks, sport facilities, monuments. All can be geospatially located. Facilities also include animal pens and enclosures and general human "activity" areas (golf course, archeology sites, etc.). Importantly Facilities include infrastructure systems such as roadways and physical networks. Facilities also include the component parts that go into making them (such as foundations, doors, windows, roofs, etc.). Facilities can also include natural structures that have been converted or used for human activities, such as occupied caves or agricultural facilities. Finally, facilities also include workplaces. Workplaces are areas of human activities, ranging from single person workstations to large aggregations of people (but which are not formal political entities).
Information Audio Info This typology is for any audio-only human work. Examples include live music performances, record albums, or radio shows or individual radio broadcasts

Visual Info The Visual Info typology is for any still image or picture or streaming video human work, with or without audio. Examples include graphics, pictures, movies, TV shows, individual shows from a TV show, etc.

Written Info This typology includes any general material written by humans including books, blogs, articles, manuscripts, but any written information conveyed via text.

Structured Info This information typology is for all kinds of structured information and datasets, including computer programs, databases, files, Web pages and structured data that can be presented in tabular form.
Social Finance & Economy This typology pertains to all things financial and with respect to the economy, including chartable company performance, stock index entities, money, local currencies, taxes, incomes, accounts and accounting, mortgages and property.

Society This category includes concepts related to political systems, laws, rules or cultural mores governing societal or community behavior, or doctrinal, faith or religious bases or entities (such as gods, angels, totems) governing spiritual human matters. Culture, Issues, beliefs and various activisms (most -isms) are included.